Published on gennaio 20th, 2015 | by admin0
XXV ANNIVERSARIO DEL “GENNAIO NERO”
Quest’anno ricade il XXV anniversario del “Gennaio Nero”.
Tale data rappresenta una delle più tragiche della storia dell’Azerbaigian, e non è solo giorno di commemorazione dei martiri, ma anche giorno della solidarietà, dell’orgoglio e dell’onore dei cittadini azerbaigiani che hanno lottato per l’integrità del paese.
Già dal 1988 il governo dell’ex Unione Sovietica aveva contribuito al rafforzamento del separatismo armeno nella Regione autonoma del Nagorno-Karabakh, appartenente all’Azerbaigian. Nella tarda notte del 19 Gennaio del 1990, senza dichiarare lo stato d’emergenza nella capitale dell’Azerbaigian, per ordine di Mikhail Gorbachev, allora presidente dell’Unione Sovietica, circa 30 mila soldati dell’esercito sovietico si diressero verso Baku. Un’operazione militare di vasta scala, mirata a colpire civili disarmati, progettata dalle forze speciali del Ministero della Difesa, del Ministero dell’Interno e del Comitato della Sicurezza Statale dell’Unione Sovietica. Scopo principale dell’ingresso delle truppe a Baku ed in altre città del paese, era di imporre alla popolazione il silenzio, per mezzo del soffocamento delle manifestazioni pacifiche iniziate come lotta per l’indipendenza e anche contro la politica unilaterale, parziale e prevenuta sul conflitto armato armeno-azerbaigiano del Nagorno-Karabakh, condotta dal governo sovietico.
Come risultato dell’operazione contro una popolazione disarmata e pacifica, a Baku e nelle altre regioni dell’Azerbaigian, vennero uccise 147 persone e più di 700 ferite. Il destino di molti scomparsi rimane ancora sconosciuto. All’epoca, la dichiarazione di maggior rilievo fu quella del Leader Nazionale Heydar Aliyev, che chiese di considerare legalmente come crimine contro l’umanità quanto commesso il 20 gennaio e proprio per sua iniziativa nel 1993 il Parlamento dichiarò il 20 gennaio giorno di lutto nazionale.
Il 20 gennaio in Azerbaigian rappresenta una data impressa nelle memorie, simbolo di tragedia e di eroismo ed è molto importante per il paese oggi aumentare la conoscenza della storia azerbaigiana nella comunità internazionale e vedere questo terribile crimine riconosciuto legalmente e i suoi esecutori puniti.
Ciò risulta di particolare rilevanza alla luce del fatto che l’Azerbaigian ancora oggi è vittima di aggressione da parte dell’Armenia, con il 20% del suo territorio sotto occupazione: il Nagorno-Karabakh e i 7 distretti circostanti, mentre 1 milione di azerbaigiani vive nella condizione di rifugiati e profughi interni.
COMUNICATO STAMPA Ambasciata della Repubblica dell’Azerbaigian in Italia
Pubblichiamo qui di seguito la Dichiarazione del Commissario per i Diritti Umani della Repubblica dell’Azerbaigian, Prof. Elmira Suleymanova :
Of the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsperson) of the Republic of Azerbaijan regarding the 25th anniversary of 20 January 1990 Tragedy
Twenty five years have already passed since the bloody 20 January 1990 tragedy. This unforgettable massacre, bloodsheds and grave crime against the humanity are commemorated with pain, hatred and rage every year. This tragedy engraved to our bloody memory as a “Black January Night” is not only a day of commemoration of our martyrs, but also the Day of solidarity, proud and honour of our people fighting for the integrity of the country. These bloody events once more proved that our people are able to fight for the sovereignty and own rights.
Since 1988, the former soviet government contributed to the strengthened Armenian separatism in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan. The deportation of Azerbaijanis form their historical-ethnic lands in Armenia eventually exhausted the patience of our people. This massacre was committed by the USSR government as a punishment to break down the extended national liberation movement in Azerbaijan and as a response to the protests of the people.
At the night from 19 to 20 January 1990, the soviet armed forces entered Baku and other cities and regions of the country. The soldiers and officers of Armenian origin have been also involved into these actions. The amphibious groups taking out from the landing ships have also attacked the city and easily destroyed the barricades of civilians. Eventually, international legal norms, the relevant provisions of the former USSR as well as the Azerbaijan SSR constitutions were severely violated and our multinational people rose to defend their lands and national.
As a consequence of the aggression committed by soviet armed forces, irrespective of their ethnicity, age and gender 147 civilians were mercilessly killed, 744 innocent people in the capital city and surrounding areas and regions were injured, dozens of people went missing and 841 people were unlawfully arrested. On 20 January, 21 people were killed even after the declaration of the state of emergency. Ambulances and physicians carrying the injured persons were also shot; medical staff became martyrs as well.
At that period, on behalf of all Azerbaijanis, the most relevant remarkable statement was made by National leader Heydar Aliyev, who was residing in Moscow. This statement calling to legally assess the crime against humanity committed on 20 January and to punish all offenders, which was made in the capital of the Soviet Empire, before the leading mass media representatives, caused to great resonance.
In 1993, at the request of the people Heydar Aliyev returned to administration and at his initiative the Parliament declared 20 January as a Day of Mourning, which is annually commemorated in the country. Tragedy victims are buried in different cemeteries of Baku and regions of the country, which turned to the holy place for the visitors. Appreciating the national freedom movement, our people commemorate own martyrs with deep respect.
The 20 January 1990 massacre as an integral part of the plan to break national awakening of our people fighting for the integrity of own lands could not break up the will of the civilians demanding the restoration of their constitutional rights. This struggle for freedom ended with the re-gaining of the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 1991.
As a result of that long lasting Armenian aggression against the Azerbaijanis still continues, grave crimes of ethnic cleansing and massacre have been committed, 20 percent of Azerbaijani lands were occupied, our compatriots were forcibly deprived from their own lands and homes in Armenia, in Nagorno-Karabakh and seven other adjacent districts of Azerbaijan, one million Azerbaijanis became refugees and IDPs.
The Azerbaijani party always tries for peaceful settlement of the Armenia-Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. President Ilham Aliyev repeatedly and resolutely stated that this conflict must be solved within the territorial integrity of our country and withdrawing the occupant armed forces from the Azerbaijani territories.
Raising awareness of the international community about the realities of Azerbaijan, including the tragedy of 20 January 1990 is one of our main duties. We provided the comprehensive information about the genocides and terror acts against our people in numerous international events. The writings about this tragedy are being published in the leading mass media and in different internet web pages and news portals. Azerbaijani diasporas all over the world draw attention of the international community to this tragedy and to Azerbaijani realities in general, organize commemoration ceremonies and call the international media agencies to tribute to the victims of this tragedy.
As a result of this crime against humanity, the provisions of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and other international legal documents on human rights were severely violated. The tragedy of 20 January 1990, which was committed in the XX century and accompanied with mass loss of human beings, is one of the horrible crimes by its nature and scale. Nevertheless, the perpetrators and benefactors of this crime have not been yet punished and the crime was not legally assessed at the international level.
The tragedy of 20th January, 1990 is a crime against humanity under the international law. According to the Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court ‘crime against humanity’ means extermination; enforced disappearance of persons; other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, serious injury to body, to mental or physical health are defined as elements of the crime. Pursuant to the international law, there is sufficient legislative framework for the interpretation of the events occurred on 20 January 1990 as a crime against humanity. Furthermore, there are also enough grounds for bringing the military personnel who committed those violent acts as well as their commanders to criminal responsibility, in particular.
We do hope that the international community, international organizations will support the just demands of Azerbaijan and this bloody event will get its international legal recognition and the perpetrators will be punished soon won’t remained unpunished.
Prof. Elmira Suleymanova
The Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsperson) of the Republic of Azerbaijan