Published on Ottobre 3rd, 2018 | by Redazione Italia



Over a thousand mud volcanoes are known  in the world, and some 400 of those are in the coastal area of vulkan1Azerbaijan. We can call Azerbaijan as a motherland of mud volcanos. This unique treasure is so valuable for us.

 Known as “mud volcanoes,” they form in places where pockets of underground gas have found a weak spot in the earth where they can force their way to the surface. Because they are not caused by magma, the mud volcanoes, rather than being hot, can be very cold indeed, often just above freezing.

While mud volcanoes (also known as “sedimentary volcanoes”) never grow to the size of a normal volcano, topping out at around 10 km in diameter and 700 meters in height, (among the largest mud volcanoes in the world are Boyuk Khanizadagh and Turaghai, both in Qobustan Azerbaijan)  azerbaigian-erutta-il-secondo-piu-grande-vulcano-di-fango-del-mondo

There is a silver lining to having a country covered in mud volcanoes. Mud volcanoes are closely associated with hydrocarbon and petrochemical stores underground, hence the gas trying to escape to the surface. A few of these gas leaks are constantly on fire, shooting small perpetual flames into the air. Local people call them “yanardagh” (burning mountain), “pilpila” (terrace), “gaynacha” (boiling water) and “bozdag” (grey mountain) alongside its geographical name – mud volcanoes.

About 200 eruptions have occurred in 50 volcanoes in the territory of Azerbaijani Republic since 1810. Eruption of cratere-fango-qobustan-azerbaigianmud volcanoes is accompanied by strong explosions and underground rumbling. Gasses come out from the deepest layers of the earth and immediately ignite. A height of a flame over volcano reaches 1000 meters (Garasu volcano). Toragay volcano erupted 6 times from 1841 to 1950.

Mud volcanoes are associated with oilfields. Rich oil and gas fields are found in the territories of mud volcanoes (Lokbatan, Garadgh, Neft Dashlari, Mishovdagh and others).

Interesting facts

Geologists of NASA studying Mars planet, concluded that mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan are similar to uplands of the planet for their structure.

The eruptions of volcanoes are used as raw material in the chemical and construction industries as well as in vulcanos-lavapharmacology.As volcanic mud contains valuable microelements such as vanadium, manganese, lithium, boron etc.  and erupted water is rich in organic compounds, as well as in bromide, boron and iodine. That,s  why volcanic mud is extensively used in cosmetology.  Volcanic clay is a valuable raw material for use in the production of high-quality cement, expanded clay, bricks and steel pellets. Because of that reason it is used extensively in construction.  Volcanic clay and mud are also used in the treatment of diseases related nervous system, skin and rheumatism. Thanks to its efficacy in balneal therapy, volcanic mud is used also in the treatment of disorders of  digestive trac and gynaecology

On September 5th in 2004 the greatest mud volcano in the territory of Azerbaijan was added into the Guinness World Records.

“Mud volcanoes,” also known as “sedimentary volcanoes” or “gas – oil volcanoes,” are close cousins to magmatic i-vulcani-di-fango-del-parco-nazionale-del-gobustanvolcanoes. Just like magmatic volcanoes, they can erupt powerfully and hurl flames to great heights (sometimes even several hundred of meters). They spew out millions of cubic meters of hydrocarbon gases and tons of mud. Mud volcanoes also exist on the floor of the sea and can form islands and banks that alter the topography and shape of the coastline and even trigger earthquakes. As mentioned above another feature of mud volcanoes is their direct relationship to oil and gas fields. Mud volcanoes resemble super-deep exploration wells in the sense that they are direct indicators of hydrocarbon

it provides valuable information on the formation and migration of oil and gas. Both mud volcanoes and hydrocarbon fields are the result of a single process of oil and gas formation, which has a characteristic vertical zone with methane gas forming in younger strata, overlying a zone of intense formation of oil and fatty gases.yanar_dagh

These small mud volcano cones are an amazing and even beautiful. , Otmanbozdag and Bozdag-Guzdek volcanos are in  Absheron, with a total elevation of 400 metres. Volcanoes are also registereds in Baku archipelago. There is a volcano called Goturdag, which is the world’s only continuously erupting volcano. There are volcanoes on the coast of the Caspian: Bandovan, Hamamdag and Bahar. The Bandovan volcano is particularly interesting. There was a city at its foot in the Middle Ages. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of dwellings, il-parco-nazionale-gobustanceramic crockery and tools only 100-200 metres from the sea. This coastal city may have been destroyed not only by the rising level of the Caspian, but also by volcanic eruption. It is possible that Bandovan was the Etna of Absheron, while the flooded city at its foot was the Caspian Pompeii.

Wait us with more wonders of Azerbaijan,

The next article will be about Qobustan.

Ema Hasanova

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